Nigeria is unarguably one of the most influential countries in Africa. British colonialism of Nigeria began apparently in when Lagos ceded to Britain. This occurrence is officially described as the annexation of Lagos. The Federal Republic of Nigeria which gained independence in , after a long period of colonialism by the British government, has a remarkable constitutional development. The constitutional development in Nigeria from till date can be divided into two generation:. In its entirety, a constitution is a set of organizing principles, laws or rules by which a State, country, group or region is governed. As a federal republic, Nigeria maintains a written constitution officially referred to as the Constitution of Nigeria.
Constitution of Nigeria
Transition as Democ To survive, he resorted to an admixture of force, that is, the stick or the threat and the actual use of force against the political opposition; and the carrot or a reward system in relation to social forces, groups and individuals that supported the regime. The fledgling regime also sought, by that singular act, to besmirch the Abiola mandate.
two events in history: its amalgamation in and the events surrounding till date, to new civilian governments is a testament to the resilience of Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) between and. , the experience. We have to sit down and discuss.” the political development of Nigeria’s constitutional.
General Louis Botha formed a government as prime minister on May 31, Leander Jameson won 39 seats in the House of Assembly. General Botha formed a government as prime minister. The parliament convened on November 4, Prime Minister Botha formed a government as prime minister on December 14, Crisis Phase June 14, September 14, : The parliament approved the Immigration Act on June 14, , which restricted the immigration and movement of Indians within the country. Indians led by Mohandas Gandhi protested against the discrimination.
Prime Minister Botha proclaimed martial law on January 14, after miners went on strike near Johannesburg. Mohandas Gandhi departed for India on July 20, after achieving concessions from the government concerning the treatment of Indians in the country. Prime Minister Botha proclaimed martial law. The British government offered military assistance to the South African government in September , but South Africa declined the offer in October General C.
Catto, Harpers Weekly The copyright holder of this image is not knowm This low-resolution image for editorial purposes is used under a Fair Use claim. It is a collaboration of more than thirty history and community-based organizations in the Greater Philadelphia region. The participating partners represent some of the most significant history collections and programs in the United States, as well as the region’s extensive community of education and heritage tourism enterprises.
In addition to the regional National History Day Competition, the collaboration provides programs and products that support not only learning history, but also the development of research and analytical skills through the exploration of special collections, archives, museums and historic sites.
This article will examine the role of social norms and the law in the Setting the context: History of Nigeria’s anti-corruption struggle lasted until (followed by another interregnum from to ). which had begun from the colonial period (–), continued to Issue Date: October
On June 8, , General Sani Abacha, the military leader who took power in Nigeria in , died of a reported heart attack and was replaced by General Abdulsalam Abubakar. General Abubakar released political prisoners and initiated political, economic, and social reforms. Relations between the United States and Nigeria improved with the subsequent transfer of power to a civilian government. Nigeria continues to make progress in strengthening its fragile democracy but faces serious economic challenges.
Nigeria remains relatively stable, although ethnic and religious clashes in some parts of the country have led to massive displacement of civilian populations. Topic Areas About Donate. Download PDF. Download EPUB. On July 7, , Moshood Abiola, the believed winner of the presidential election, also died of a heart attack during a meeting with U. He also established a new independent electoral commission and outlined a schedule for elections and transition to civilian rule, pledging to hand over power to an elected civilian government by May In late February , former military leader General Olusegun Obasanjo was elected president and was sworn in on May 29, Obasanjo won The elections, however, were marred by serious irregularities and electoral fraud, according to international election observers.
1. South Africa (1910-present)
HISTORY OF NIGERIA including Historic regions, Fulani and Sokoto, British They date back as far as the 5th century BC, when communities living around the , when the entire region becomes the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. In a new constitution (the third in eight years) establishes the Federation of.
Researching Ghanaian Law. Victor Essien holds LL. Hons , LL. Ghana , LL. NYU degrees. He was admitted to the Ghana Bar in Published June Please Read the Update! Table of Contents.
“Everyone’s in on the Game”
Since it gained independence from Britain in , however, it has been plagued by political instability and economic problems. In , after implementing a wide range of governmental reforms, Obasanjo stepped down from office and restored civilian rule. In doing so, he became the only Nigerian military leader to voluntarily hand power to a democratically-elected government. Following two decades of corrupt political leadership, Obasanjo presented himself as a candidate for president, and was elected in March of As president, Obasanjo faced some daunting problems.
The economy, already damaged by high-level corruption, is dependent on oil for
–. World War I: U.S. enters World War I, declaring war on Germany (April 6, Constitution is ratified, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of president’s inauguration date from March 4 to Jan. Here’s a timeline of major events in U.S. History from –, including and Civilians in Nigeria.
The importance of a constitution in any given society cannot be overemphasized. It is the fundamental and organic law of a nation or state that establishes the institutions and apparatus of government, defines the scope of governmental sovereign powers, and guarantees individual civil rights and civil liberties. It is trite that one of the sources of a constitution is other constitutions. This is the major concern of this present work. This will help us to understand better, how previous constitutions have been fashioned for Nigeria and will go a great length in making us understand the source of our present constitution from the looking glass of constitutional history.
After the annexation of Lagos by the British in , a legislative and executive council was constituted for it.
NIGERIA – CONSTITUTION DEVELOPMENT HISTORY AND LEGAL COMPLEX
The impact of religion on a secular state: the Nigerian experience. Nigeria, in her 55 years of nationhood, is the most populated black nation in the world. She has to her credit a written Constitution being operated for the effective democratic governance of her population, comprising peoples of different religious freedom and cultural backgrounds.
In Nigeria, Christianity, Islam and traditional religions are most widely practised.
Allied Tribes of BC ask Parliament to examine question of aboriginal title in BC. The Allied Tribes petitions the Canadian Parliament for an inquiry, outlining the “.
Since its independence in , Nigeria has struggled unsuccessfully to clearly articulate the relationship between religion and the state. Whereas the British colonialists seemingly bequeathed to the new nation-state a secular regime at independence, the internal contradictions, which, paradoxically were propagated by the colonial authority, incubated to pose a challenge to the new state soon thereafter. This article therefore seeks to situate the legal and constitutional frontiers of state—religion relations in Nigeria.
It is intent on delineating the conceptual boundary between religion and politics, while evaluating the impact of the current relationship on national security. The article advocates for a moderate secular regime—by whatever name—that is constitutionally defined and institutionalized. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.
To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don’t already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In.
History: Evolution of Nigeria constitution 1914 to 1999
The current economic problem in our nation is often lamented and cursed as unendurable, as if it is peculiar to the nation alone. Similarly, the fiscal measures introduced by the government are looked upon as hindrances or impediments, which a few may consider as irrelevant and unnecessary impositions. Yet, to look back at our growing up problems as if they are burdens, which we must cast off immediately, or run away from, is to be superficial and incapable of understanding ourselves, an offshoot of our character.
The Nigerian economy, whether advancing or otherwise, is the weight that we must bear in our growth towards maturity, and in coming into full being as adults and as a nation. A mother does not complain of the weight of the child she carries on her back.
, and the Federal Constitutional Act of January 26, , Federal Law Gazette No. very exceptional circumstances, where the law provides for civil imprisonment [Within a period of 12 months from the date of circulation of the depositary and the history of the Covenant that the said reservation is incompatible with.
If President Goodluck Jonathan is to be believed, Nigerians are about to write yet another constitution. It will be their ninth in the 24 years that they have had democracy out of the 53 years of independence from Britain. But it appears to be the curious maths of constitution-making in Nigeria, the country that holds the world record for the highest turnover of national constitutions. Since attaining independence from Britain in , Nigeria has had a period of 24 years of democracy and 29 years of military rule.
During those 29 years, various military juntas simply dispensed with the national constitutions at work at the time and ruled by diktat. Curiously, the civilian politicians who ruled during the 24 years of democracy did not do any better — the number of constitutions that they either used or tried to write has broken the world record, an average of one constitution for every three years in government. Which means all the eight constitutions the nation has had have been rejected as inadequate, hence the need for yet another one.
The decision is the result of vigorous campaigns by pressure groups which believe that the problems currently overwhelming Nigeria are the direct consequence of the lack of adequate participation by civil society before the current constitution was imposed in by the military government in power at the time. In all, half of the attempts at constitution making in the country have resulted in actual constitutions, in , , , and Conferences in London also produced three other constitutions between and Thus, the mere mention of writing another one has drawn protestations that seem just as fervent as the criticism of the constitution.
While some people see a new constitution as an effective means to address the many problems facing the country, others see it as a diversionary tactic to provide the government with a breather from those problems.
Nigeria as a colony
As Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria, with an estimated population of million and over ethnic groups, deals with a range of migration issues, from massive internal and regional migration to brain drain and a large, well-educated diaspora in the West mainly the United States and the United Kingdom that it sees as key to future development. Thousands of Nigerians seek refuge and asylum each year, and some also migrate illegally, transiting through North Africa and then crossing the Mediterranean to Europe.
Poverty drives much of this movement: more than 70 percent of Nigerians live below the national poverty line. Also, millions have been internally displaced due to religious and ethnic conflicts — particularly in cities across the north — that have persisted despite the establishment of a democratic government in that followed several years of military rule.
Date: Created by: Unidentified; Subject of: Bates, Daisy, American, – Pin for History Books membership of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority.
Nigeria is a creation of the Constitution. Nigeria grew into an internationally recognised independent nation, in , after a period of colonialism under the British government which spanned about a century beginning with the formal annexation of Lagos in While each successive pre-independence constitutional instrument was enacted through an order-in-council of the British monarch, their post-independence counterparts were enacted in two ways: an Act of parliament Constitution and military decree and The emergent entity was administered under the authority of the British monarch through her appointed agent: a Governor-General.
The Constitution created a Legislative Council of the Colony which was however restricted to making laws for the Colony of Lagos alone, whilst the Governor General made laws for the rest of the country. Eight years later, the Constitution was replaced by the Sir Clifford Constitution. Notably, the latter Constitution established a 46 member Legislative Council which was given law making responsibilities for the Colony of Lagos and the southern provinces.
The Council had 27 members including the Governor, the Lieutenant-Governors, other elected and nominated members including three representing Lagos as the administrative and commercial capital and one representing Calabar as a big commercial centre. Notably, the Constitution introduced, for the first time in any British African territory, the elective principle with Lagos and Calabar being granted the franchise to elect their representatives to the Legislative Council.
This constitution came into effect after the Second World War — an event which had a significant effect on constitutional reforms relating to the governance of colonial Nigeria, and indeed Africa as a whole, as returning African heroes of the war who were conscripted to fight on the side of the British returned with a deeper understanding of national freedom and international sovereignty.
The racial and ethnic makeup of the American people is in flux. New immigrants from Asia and Latin America have added a large measure of cultural and phenotypic diversity to the American population in recent decades, just as waves of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe did a century ago Bean and Stevens ; Higham ; Lieberson and Waters : Ch. Moreover, the boundaries between racial and ethnic groups are becoming blurred by high rates of intermarriage and the growing number of persons with mixed ancestry Lee and Bean Descriptions and projections of the racial and ethnic composition of the American people appear kaleidoscopic, with varied accounts and interpretations.
The history of the interior of West Africa is the history of the movement of different Formally, Nigeria became one administrative unit in ; real unity was first.
With the merger of Exxon and Mobil in , the newly formed Exxon Mobil Corporation brought together a shared history that dates back over years to their origins as part of the Standard Oil family of companies. By , the Trust had amassed companies responsible for all aspects of the petroleum industry — exploration, production, refining, transportation and marketing — creating a vertically integrated organization.
Congress’s passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of , however, which aimed to ensure fair competition in interstate commerce and to eliminate monopolies, eventually led to the dissolution of the Trust in Not to be outdone, the company rebounded by forming the Standard Oil Interests, consisting of about 20 holding companies. In , taking advantage of a New Jersey law allowing a single corporation to own stock in other companies, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests.
A year earlier, however, the Ohio attorney general had begun legal proceedings to order all Ohio companies affiliated with Standard Oil to separate and begin operating independently. Other states soon followed, with charges that Standard Oil continued to violate anti-trust laws. In May , after years of legal proceedings, the United States Supreme Court declared Standard Oil Company of New Jersey an “unreasonable” monopoly and ordered it to dissolve, resulting in 34 distinct and separate companies.
The former would become Exxon; the latter Mobil. Throughout the 20th century, both companies continued to grow and forge individual identities. This growth meant strengthening its industry alliances, merging with other companies, developing new technologies and diversifying its holdings. Both companies weathered the breakup well. Provisions of the dissolution agreement assigned marketing for New York state and New England to Standard Oil Company of New York Socony and allowed Socony to maintain its extensive overseas operations.